The Etymology of Agastya is Astronomical in Nature

The Etymology of Agastya is Astronomical in Nature


Rupa Bhaty[1]

Agastya is present almost in every scripture including the Rg veda and in almost all the astronomy texts. Most of the times the Agastya is present in the form of a physical sage and there’s always a story, or myths or dialogues related to him in different time, space in Indic texts. India is full of Tīrtha related to Agastya.

In the astronomy texts, the mention of Agastya is, in the form of helical rising, and many researchers have been researching on the time and place from where the helical rising of Canopus happens.

Least science has been analyzed on the etymological content in the onomastic study of Sanskrit word “Agastya”. Author finds interesting conjecture of two phenomenas in the Sanskrit word “Agastya”. One is the pole star via na gacchatīti aga and another responsible for either pressing down via styai śabda saṃghātayoḥ similar to diminishing of sound, collecting into a heap.

Both the phenomenas will be critically analyzed and studied in this research paper and prove that the name Agastya bears astronomical phenomena from deep antiquity.

Author Keywords:

Computational-simulation; Lores of Agastya; Amarakośa; Vindhyā; Paraśara Tantra; Purāṇa; Rāmāyaṇa


Paraśara Tantra=PT, Rāmāyaṇa= Rām


Agastya is present almost in every scripture including the Rg veda and in almost all the astronomy texts except for Vedāṅga jyotiṣa. Most of the times the Agastya is present in the form of a physical sage and there’s always a story, or a myth or dialogues related to him which appears to be from different time and space in Indic texts. India is full of Tīrtha related to Agastya. In the past, many researchers have attempted the studies of helical rising of Agastya, and, identified its rise from various places w.r.t to varied meridian height of Canopus for its first visibility from the estimated place. For example, RN Iyengar[2] assumed Canopus visibility, rise and set, from Pushkar, i.e., 26.5ºN, in certain timeframe of 1500 BCE which was refuted by KC Hari[3] with well grounded facts and direct evidence of Hipparchus, who noted the visibility of Canopus from Rhodes at 1º16’, likewise KC Hari noted the visibility of Canopus on 4000 BCE at 30ºN which crosses the meridian for few days. Iyengar (2014, pp. 223-238) has discussed the heliacal visibility of the star Agastya (Canopus) with reference to Parāśara’s six season solar zodiac credited 1350-1130 BCE

Note that the visibility of stars are not same for ever. It changes its position due to factors like

  1. Its own proper motion,
  2. Due to change of Right Ascension and declination.

Method of Science

Scientific method begins with a problem and then proposes a tentative solution to solve it. This proposed solution is the theory. Various consequences due to this theory are calculated and the outcome is compared for the actual evidence. If the evidence matches with the consequences of the theory, theory is accepted as tentatively viable and the cycle repeats until all the evidence are tested.

Defining a problem

The problems of identifying Agastya as Star Canopus are as follows:

  •  Is there any objective evidence that would allow us to define Agastya in different myths as Canopus and Agastya tīrthas as latitudes of its visibility?
  •  Is there any objective evidence that would allow us to specify two intrinsic astronomical aspects of Canopus, one being behaving as a pole star and another being too much moving across the latitudes?
  •  Is there any objective evidence that would allow us to define specific chronology markers (day, year or millennium)  with the help of the etymology of Agastya—Canopus for the visibility of Agastya from certain latitude?

Theory and Evidence

The development of the theory depends on the nature of the problem to be solved. The choice of evidence is determined by the nature of the proposed theory. The problem of understanding and dating the events of Agastya begins with an explanation of verifiable evidence from these ancient stories, but requires, for example, a theory of astronomical nature. Relevant evidence will have to be explored in the relevant scientific discipline, and the evidence will have to be compared with the claims / explanations of these ancient stories. Before delving into the theory and evidence of astronomy, let’s understand the precession of equinoxes and axial precessions.

Precession of Equinoxes and Axial precession

Precession of equinoxes is the phenomenon of the movement of the earth’s axis in an imaginary circular path that takes about 26000 years to complete one cycle. The projection (in a northerly and southerly directions) onto the celestial sphere of the Earth’s rotation axis describes a circular path. At any given time, where the earth’s axis points to, along this circular path, are called the point of ‘North Celestial Pole’ (NCP) & ‘South Celestial Pole’ (SCP). If a distinct and visible star is close to this point of NCP/SCP, it attains the status of a ‘North Pole Star’ for a time, i.e., until the NCP/SCP moves far away from the position of the star.

This results in

  • Change in the position of NCP (North celestial pole) and thus also the change of ‘North Pole Star’ and ‘South Pole Star’.
    For example, while ‘Polaris’ is north pole star in our times, likewise Vega (Abhijit/Brahmarāśī) was the North pole star around 12000 BCE and while a Polaris Australis (also called σ Octantis) is our time’s south pole star likewise Canopus was the South Pole Star.  Sigma Octantis is 5.5 magnitude star, barely visible to the naked eye. Even if the pole stars comes in the path on exact pole point at NCP circle the owner of  feeble magnitude will make them invisible to naked eye and it may not contend to be a pole star, since it may not guide us at any point time, neither during its helical rise nor in the night navigation. > insert fig.<
  • Change in the position of the sun (with respect to reference frame of background Nakshatra) for specific cardinal points.
    For example, timing (day, Lunar month & Tithi) of winter solstice would shift with respect to the background reference frame of Nakshatra, by about one day (one degree) every 72 years. This means the point of winter solstice would shift by about one nakshatra every (26000/27 = 963~ 1000) thousand years.
  • Note that the pole point (SCP) of the southern sky is not visible from the Northern Hemisphere. You cannot assume the pole point of the southern sky until you reach the equator. If lucky the star at the pole point then you will be able to say that it is exact SCPS, i.e., south celestial pole star. You can also see the tips of the two poles, i.e., NCP & SCP  touching or sitting on the horizon.

This will result in

In 2800 BCE, the magnitude 3.5 Draco Alpha star in the constellation Draco was the North Pole Star.  On the 4100 CE, the magnitude 3.3 star Gamma Cephius passes within about 2 °of the pole. Further ahead, around 10,000 CE, the illustrious magnitude 1.3  Deneb will be about 7 ° from the pole point. And by 14,000 CE, the zero-magnitude star Vega will pass within about 5 ° of the pole. Before that, around 13,100 CE, the magnitude 4.3  star Lyra passes within 0.5 degrees of the pole.

Fig. 1

As observers from Earth, we need star visibility. Currently, there are not many bright stars near the pole of the southern sky. Antarctica is marked by the magnitude 5.5 star Sigma Octans, which is barely visible to the naked eye. On the 4200 CE, the gamma of a star with a magnitude of 4.1 in the Chameleon constellation is less than 2° from the pole. On the 5800 CE, the magnitude 3.6  star Carina Omega Carinae will be less than 1º from the SCP. This region of the sky contains a large number of 2nd and 3rd magnitude stars, many of which will pass near the poles. In the year 8100 CE, the magnitude 2.3 star Aspidiske is once again in the constellation Carinae, becoming the South Pole Star, and in the 9200 CE, it is followed by the magnitude 2.0 star Delta Velae. (In the meantime, the Milky Way crosses Antarctica, so the neighborhood is dotted with  moderately bright stars, many of which have the honor of being Polaris himself.) Around 14,000 AD, Vega is 5º from NCP and Canopus is within 10º from SCP. Around 22,000 AD, the latitude of the star Achernar with a magnitude of 0.5 in Eridanus is about 82½ °.

So we note from the above that the designated pole stars are not exactly at pole point and rarely any pole star is as near as 1º. Thus all of them revolve around the pole point, in their respective hemispheres.

Astronomical Theory and Evidence

The descriptions of star positions, their magnitude, their positions, their specific motions, their right ascension and declination which changes of their position due to Precession of Equinoxes and Axial Precession, descriptions of comets, solar and lunar eclipses, positions and phases of the moon, planets, descriptions of the seasons makes astronomical data.

Fig. 2

My theory is that the Agastya word is astronomical in nature and possesses two characteristics.

  1. Being a designated pole star, which showed the exact south from Indian the peninsula.
  2. Being a pressor of Orion at each latitude while going and eloping to the southern latitude decrease in RA and Dec corresponding to southern hemisphere), and being an expander (increase in RA and Dec) by going towards the northern latitudes making many southern hemispheric stars visible in the northern hemisphere. In short—A highly moving star on Lat.

Lets see via Onomastic studies of the word Agastya and examine some of its synonyms if they help us to clarify more on the word Agastya.

Onomastic study of the word Agastya and some of its synonyms like Māna, Kumbhasambhava & Kumbhayonija

1. The word Agastya comprises of two roots

  1. गमॢँ गतौ (to go) न गच्छति इति अगः , (that he is stationed and doesn’t move)
  2. स्त्यै {स्त्यै शब्दसङ्घातयोः (भ्वादिः  परस्मैपदी  अकर्मकः  अनिट्)} U. (स्त्यायति-ते) —
  3. To be collected into a heap or mass.
  4. To spread about, be diffused; शिशिरकदुकषायः स्त्यायते सल्लकीनां Māl. 9. 6, 2. 21; Mv. 5. 41.
  5. Sound, echo.

2. The word mAna मान ; name of father of Agastya or agastya himself. मानँ स्तम्भे चुरादिः, आत्मनेपदी, अकर्मकः, सेट्  (to boast, to be egoistic, to be proud, to stabilize)  (गर्व करना, स्थिर करना, गर्वीला होना)

3. The word Kumbhasambhava—The one which makes the Kumbha happen.

4. Kumbhayonija—The one who is at the bottom of the Kumbha.

This results in

  1. Agastya didn’t move much and served as a near pole star conditions and is a designated pole star.
  2. It did start its visibility on various latitudes, while crossing meridian, during its northern course. It eloped from the northern latitudes towards southern latitudes, is well noted according to Parāśara tantra.

An illustration from Purāṇa & Jaiminī Brāhmaṇa—Agastya at the northernmost latitude

According to the Skanda purāṇa[4], all of the Asuras of the south took part in Shiva’s marriage. When Shiva notices the earth’s imbalance, he asks Agastya to go south and balance it. As a result, Agastya embarks on his journey to the South. This anecdote reminds Jaiminī Brāhmaṇa of Agastya’s decision to leave his children and Kurukṣetra to join his forefathers. In the continuation of this story, we read that Agastya crossed Vindhya in yet another lore after departing north and heading south. Only by distinguishing that the Agastya named in ancient sources corresponds to Star Agastya-Canopus can these recorded happenings in lore form be authenticated. For the first time, proof suggesting Agastya is a Canopus star appears in PT.

An illustration from Amarakośa

Amarkośa nāmliṅgānuśāsana of Amarsimha says as under,

(1.3.215) dhruva auttānapādiḥ syāt agastyaḥ kumbhasambhavaḥ

(1.3.216)  maitrāvaruṇirasyaiva lopāmudrā sadharmiṇī

Dhruva (1) Auttānapādiḥ; of the Uttānapada [one whose legs are extended or stretched] (2) Agastya (3) Kumbhasambhava like (4) Mitra-Varuna, Lopāmudrā with Agastya (also had been a Dhruva, i.e., a pole point by śakti and lakṣaṇā—Inner & outer evidence).

An illustration from Parāśara Tantra Text—Agastya crossing Vindhya

It was necessary for us to translate the Agastya—Vindhya lore present in PT into Hindi since the translation in English[5] by RN Iyengar is too literal to enable us to understand the nuances of the same lore. Similar lore/myth is projected in various Purāṇās[6] also. Here, there are two pointers which decides that the Vindhya and Agastya are astral features.

॥ पराशरतन्त्रम् ॥ उपनयाध्यायः

1.10 (अगस्त्यस्य यथा)

अथ भगवन्तममितयशसं पराशरं कौशिकोऽभ्युवाच। भगवन् याम्यायां दिशि ज्योतिष्मद् ग्रहरूपमुदितमालक्ष्यते नक्षत्रग्रहमार्गव्युत्क्रान्तचरितं न वेद्मि। किं तत्किमर्थं वा प्राचीं दिशमपहाय दक्षिणेन प्रावृट्कालान्तोदितं शरत्कालान्तोदितं वा कतिपयाहान्यदृश्यं भवति। तन्नो भगवन् वक्तुमर्हसीत्येवमुक्तो भगवानुवाच॥

इसके बाद अपरिमित यश वाले भगवान् पराशर से कौशिक अर्थात विश्वामित्र ने कहा– भगवन्! दक्षिण दिशा में अत्यन्त कान्ति से युक्त ग्रह के जैसा कोइ उदित हुआ सा जान पड़ता है। नक्षत्रों एवं ग्रहों के मार्ग का अतिक्रमण करने वाला यह कौन है? मैं नहीं जानता हूँ,  क्योंकि पूर्व दिशा को छोड़कर दक्षिण दिशा की ओर वर्षा काल या शरत्काल के उपरान्त उदित हु्ए कुछ दिन अदृश्य जैसे होते हैं। उसे आप बताने का कष्ट करें ऐसा कहे जाने पर विश्वामित्र ने कहा–

श्रुतपूर्वस्ते पृथिव्यां मेरुमन्दरातिरिक्तप्रभावः शैलराड् विन्ध्यो नाम। स स्ववीर्यबलसमुच्छ्रायविशेषमन्विष्यमाणो दिव्यं वर्षसहस्रमुग्रं तपस्तेपे। स पितामहादहन्यहनीषुपातप्रमाणमुच्छ्राये-ण वर्द्धस्वेति ईप्सितं वरं लेभे। तस्यातिवृद्ध्या दिवसकर आवृतस्तेनान्धमिव जगदभवत्। ततो देवर्षिगन्धर्वोरगरक्षांसि पितामहमभिजग्मुः। भगवन्विन्ध्यवृद्ध्या जगदवसीदत इत्यूचुः। ततः स्वयम्भुवा अगस्त्यनामा महर्षिः अनेकवर्षसहस्रसम्भृततया ध्यातः उक्तश्च। त्वमेकः शक्तो विन्ध्यातिवृद्धिनिवर्तनं कर्तुं कृते चास्मिन् कर्मणि नभसि विराजिष्यसे। दर्शनादेव ते जगति सर्वविघ्नविनाशो भविष्यति। एवमस्त्विति कृत्वा महर्षिरगमत् विन्ध्यसकाशम्। उवाचैनमन्तरं मे प्रयच्छ तीर्थयात्रां करिष्यामि। अनागते च मयि त्वया न वर्धितव्यम्। इत्येवमुपश्रुत्य तपःप्रभावविस्तरस्याभिज्ञो महर्षेः विन्ध्याचलश्चलच्छिखरपादो भवविषादविक्लवमतिः उवाच। भगवन् बृहदसंकीर्णमविषमं अनेक तरुगणोदकम् एकदेशमार्गमायोजयिष्यामि येन भगवन् यास्यतीति। एवमुक्तो महर्षिः चुकोप। क्रोधरक्तान्तनेत्रोऽवदत्। ममाज्ञाक्षोभात् कदाचित् सर्वथैव न भविष्यसीति। ततः शैलस्तत्प्रभावभयभीतः स्वभावमुपगतोऽनागते भगवति न वृद्धिं यास्यामीति। ततो महर्षिः दक्षिणां दिशमगमत्। स एषोऽगस्त्यः शैलवृद्धिव्याघातनिमित्तं न प्रत्येति दक्षिणस्यामुदेति तस्यामेवास्तं गच्छत्तीति।

ऐसा सुनाई देता है कि पृथ्वी पर मेरू और मंदर के अतिरिक्त अतिशय प्रभाव वाला पर्वतों का राजा विंध्य था। वह अपने पराक्रम और बल विशेष की चाह रखते हुए हजार दिव्यवर्ष तक उग्र तपस्या किया था। और वह पितामह से “प्रतिदिन पात के प्रमाण की ऊँचाई के अनुरूप बढ़ो” ऐसा अभीष्ट वर प्राप्त किया। उसके अत्यंत बढ़ने से सूर्य ढक गए और उससे संपूर्ण जगत अंधकारमय हो गया। तत्पश्चात् देव, ऋषि, गंधर्व, नाग और राक्षस सभी पितामह के पास गए और कहा– हे भगवन्! विन्ध्य के बढ़ने से यह संसार दुखी हो रहा है। तब ब्रह्मा ने अगस्त नाम के महर्षि को अनेक वर्षों तक ध्यान किया और कहा– आप ही एक विन्ध्य के अतिशय वृद्धि को रोकने में समर्थ हो। और ऐसा कर्म करने से आप आकाश में सुशोभित होंगे। आपके दर्शन से ही संसार में सभी विघ्नों का नाश होगा। ऐसा कहने पर “अस्तु” ऐसा कहके महर्षि अगस्त्य बिन्ध्य के पास गए। और उससे कहा–मुझे मार्ग दो मैं तीर्थ यात्रा करूँगा। जब तक मैं ना आ जाऊँ तुम्हें बढ़ना नहीं चाहिए। ऐसा सुनकर  महर्षि के तप के प्रभाव और उसके विस्तार को जानने वाला, चंचल शिखर और पैर वाला, संसार के दुखों से विकलित मति वाले विन्ध्य ने कहा–भगवन् अत्यंत बड़ा, विस्तृत और समतल तथा नाना प्रकार के वृक्षों और जल से सुशोभित एक तरफ का मार्ग बनाता हूँ जिससे आप जाएँगे। ऐसा कहने पर महर्षि क्रुद्ध हो गए। और क्रोध के कारण उनका नेत्र लाल हो गया। मेरी आज्ञा का थोडा भी उल्लंघन करने पर तुम वैसा नहीं रह पाओगे। उसके बाद उनके प्रभाव से डरा हुआ वह अपने मूल स्वभाव में आ गया और कहा– आपके आगमन पर्यन्त मैं नहीं बढूँगा। तब महर्षि दक्षिण दिशा में चले गए। वही यह अगस्त्य हैं जो पर्वत की वृद्धि को रोकने के लिए फिर नहीं लौटेवही दक्षिण दिशा में उदित होते हैं और उसी दिशा में अस्त होते हैं।[7].

We get three astronomical pointers here which makes this lore completely an astronomical lore and designate Agastya as a star.

  1. मेरू और मंदर के अतिरिक्त अतिशय प्रभाव वाला पर्वतों का राजा विंध्य था।”—Due to the effects of the (axis) Meru and Mandara (cryptically explaining slow movement of axial precession) there was a king of heights (पर्वत=height in Sanskrit) named Vindhya. Vindhya means Hunter in Sanskrit. Hunter is a constellation Orion in the sky in the Ptolemaic Chart.
  2. प्रतिदिन पात के प्रमाण की ऊँचाई के अनुरूप बढ़ो”— Every day you rise in accordance with the prescribed declination.
  3.  “देवर्षिगन्धर्वोरगरक्षांसि”—devas,  ṛśis, gandharvas, rākṣasa (celestial beings), (here we connect with Skanda P of participants of Shiva’s marriage).
  4. वही यह अगस्त्य हैं जो पर्वत की वृद्धि को रोकने के लिए फिर नहीं लौटेवही दक्षिण दिशा में उदित होते हैं और उसी दिशा में अस्त होते हैं। — This is the same Agastya who didn’t return to increase the height of the Vindhya. He rises and sets in the south.

A physical Agastya Muni cannot rise and set. PT solves that Agastya, in this lore, is present as a Star Agastya—Canopus which was crossing Vindhya during 19000 BCE. I will elaborate on Orion—Vindhya in yet another research paper. We will deal with the onomastic study of Agastya.

An illustration from Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa Text—Agastya at Mahendragiri of Agastyamalai

tataḥsamudramāsādyasaṃpradhāryaarthaniścayam || 4-41-19

agastyenaantaretatrasāgareviniveśitaḥ |

citrasānunagaḥśrīmānmahendraḥparvatottamaḥ || 4-41-20

jātarūpamayaḥśrīmānavagāḍhomahārṇavam |

“Then on reaching the southern ocean, and on taking a resolve with regard to the purpose of your task, viz., importance of the mission undertaken vis–vis your individual capacities to leap the ocean, you reach the glorious Mt. Mahendra. Sage Agastya once penned its one end in the ocean, and the other end is now visible. That august and best one among all mountains will be completely golden with marvelous terraces and trees, and it will be steeping into ocean on the other side of land, and this mountain becomes the jumping-off point for you Vānaras.”

Here in Rām, again, the sage Agastya is concluded as a star Agastya—Canopus who starts getting visible from the Mahendragiri latitude 8.5ºN and is a designated pole star during Rām times which shows exact south from the Mahendragiri location.

Objective Testing via Voyager Simulation

During the time of 12000 to 13000 BCE, Canopus was closest to the celestial south pole (and so became a pole star), with a declination of approximately 78 degrees[8]

Text Box: Table 1

. This would imply that Agastya was always visible from latitu

Text Box: Epoch	Declination of Canopus (in degrees)
2000 AD	52.69711111
0 AD/BC	52.60152778
2000 BC	54.58808333
4000 BC	58.42358333
6000 BC	63.70083333
8000 BC	69.78105556
10000 BC	75.49619444
12000 BC	78.33822222
14000 BC	75.92788889
16000 BC	70.56127778
18000 BC	64.885
20000 BC	60.12797222
22000 BC	56.92416667
24000 BC	55.64208333
26000 BC	56.46077778
28000 BC	59.307
30000 BC	63.93380556

de 10.34ºN. Because Canopus was always visible and observed from this biosphere under its pole star conditions, the name Agastyamalai range  found  compatibility with that of continual Agastya’s visibility. This is a well-proven ethnographic memory via geography.

Lets understand how the change of declination of star Canopus will be visible at different latitudes while its southern course in fig. 4, 5 & 6

Canopus during 29,000 BCE – 26,000 BCE; fig 4

Canopus during 19,000 BCE; fig 5

Canopus during 13,000 BCE-11000 BCE; fig 6


In this case, we recognize the word Agastya as star Canopus with the help of various descriptions  from different scriptures and identify Agastya as a designated pole star during 11,000 BCE-13000 BCE.

We find its profound visibility across Indian peninsula till 30ºN during its northern course till todays time, But also its southern course from 26,000 BCE, meanwhile crossing Vindhya during 19000 BCE. The highly moving Agastya was changing its meridian height as per the instruction of pāta / declination prescribed in PT. This phenomena of visibility and non visibility happens due to Axial Precession which takes around 25750 years to complete one cycle.

Both the phenomenas, pole star and axial precession star, are covered by the onomastic and etymological study of word Agastya which comprises of agam and styai. It was tested with the new scientific software simulation, and the finds give the invaluable insights. 


KC, Hari, 2016 “On the visibility of Agastya(Canopus) in India”, Indian Journal of History and Sciences,                 51.3(2016)511-520

Abhyankar, KD, 2005, “Folklore and Astronomy: Agastya a sage and a star”, Current Science, Vol.89,no.             12, 25 December; Current Science 89:2174-2176

Iyengar, RN “ Parāśaratantra, Ancient Sanskrit Text On Astronomy and Natural Sciences”, 2013

Iyengar, RN, 2014, Parasara’s six season solar zodiac and heliacal visibility of star Agastya in 1350-1130 BC, IJHS, 49.3 (2014): 223-238.

[1] Ex Chief Architect, GDA, Adjunct Faculty, Institute of Advanced Sciences, Dartmouth, MA, USA

[2] RN Iyengar

[3] KC Hari

[4] Swami Parmeshwaranand. Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Puranas. Sarup & Sons, 2001 – Puranas – 1432 pages. p. 9.

[5] “Sir, in the southern direction a bright planet-like object is seen. “I don’t know this object that moves not along the nakshatra-planetary path (ecliptic)”. Why this object leaving the East rises “in the South at the end of the monsoon or at the end of the autumn to be seen for a few days?” Please explain this.” On this question, Parāśara answers, “We have heard that in ancient times earth excessively experienced king of Mountain—Vindhyā  to grow too tall, and covered the sun as though to make world dark (fear of something unusual). Then at the request of gods the Creator told sage Agastya that he only can control Vindhyā and after this act he would start glowing in the sky. Agastya went to the mountain range ordering it not to grow till he returned from his travels in the southern-tirthas (Lat) of the country. When Vindhyā offered a wide lane with trees and waterbodies to travel the sage got angry. Being afraid of the sage, Vindhyā agreed not to grow till the sage returned north. Agastya to prevent Vindhyā from further growth, ‘rises and sets in the South only’. —This is the translation given by R. N. Iyengar in his book “Parāśaratantra, Ancient Sanskrit Text On Astronomy and Natural Sciences”, 2013

[6] *1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 19. 16; VI. 4. 20; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 3. 3. 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II, 16. 19; III. 7. 356; 13. 34; Matsya-purāṇa 114. 18; Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 89; 58. 81; 69. 239; 77. 34; 88. 199; 96. 38.     3) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 26. 25; 71. 39. 4) Matsya-purāṇa 13. 39; 22. 66. 5) Ib. 61. 51. 6) Ib. 106. 49. 7) Ib. 114. 27-8; Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 103. 8) Matsya-purāṇa 121. 51; Vāyu-purāṇa 47. 50. 9) Matsya-purāṇa 157, 17, 19.

[7] This section has been translated by Dr. Umesh Kumar Singh, Professor INADS

[8] Ref Calculation; [(90º-78.34º(declination)-2º(visibility criterion on meridian)=10.34ºN Latitude]