Nature in the works of kālidāsa
Lecturer in Sanskrit
Kālidāsa, who is the greatest poet in the sanskrit literature. He is a dramatist, writer of lyric poetry and epics of extraordinary quality. Kālidāsa means servant of kāli (kālyāḥ dāsaḥ ). He has got many praising regarding his beauty of representations, the tenderness of feeling and richness of imagination in the writings. The present paper represents the description of nature in his various works like Abhijñāna śākuntalam, Raghuvaṁśam and meghadūtam also. The poet kālidāsa has get the honor about his work Abhijñāna śākuntalam and this drama is very much appreciated by all the indians and foreigners. Paṇḍita jayadeva say of our poet as ‘kavikulaguru’ means the master of poets and ‘vilāsa’ means playing place of the colleen of the poetry. Nature is his life and essence of the poetry and which can able to touch the heart of every reader in this modern era.
Kalidasa, Drama, kanva, sakuntala, Dilipa, Dushyanta, cloud, Alaka.
Kālidāsa has renowned as the greatest Sanskrit poet and also a dramatist. It is a question of unsettled which period he flourished. Although many scholars nowadays support the middle of the 4th and early period of 5th-century A.D, the period of Chandragupta II vikramāditya and his successor kumaragupta. Kālidāsa loves the nature of the soft side. He has mentioned peaceful and decent hermitages, lovely gardens, beautiful palaces, singing birds, humming bee and cuckoo, etc. kālidāsa loves the mountain Himālaya than vindhyāṅchala, although both mountains are the same chain. Kālidāsa is the strong knower of human psychology, the thinking of human beings in every situation, and also he has known the psychology of every woman enormously. He possesses the mastery of the expressing capacity of all through actions. Kālidāsa was a genius person and whose geniuses have recognized and also appreciated in the literary world completely. His literary works have been attracted by the scholars and orientalists of outside the country like America and Asia. The poetic geniuses bring to Sanskrit poetry to the top of refinement and consistent clarity and without excessive shading. His expression capacity is very simple and unaffected. The beauty in the poetry of kālidāsa has universally appreciated and his soft feeling and abundance of imagination are praised also. One paṇḍit says about the poet as “purākavīnāṁ gaṇanāprasaṅge kaniṣṭhikā’dhiṣṭhita kālidāsā/Adyāpi tattulyakaverabhāvādanāmikā sa’rthavatī vabhūva//”.
While counting starts about the poets, the finger of first has gained by the poet kālidāsa, as the first poet, and then the finger of second exists true its name because there is no second poet found by the person who can get that position.
Kālidāsa has written three dramas like Abhijñāna śākuntalam, mālavikāgnimitram, and vikramorvaśiyam and besides this, he is the writer of two mahākāvyas like kumārsambhavam, Raghuvaṁśam and one of the khaṇḍa kāvya entitled meghadūtam and Ṛtusaṁhāram has written by the poet kālidāsa
Many other writings said as the poet of kālidāsa, but there is no strong evidence about that sayings. The seven writings are only considered as the original and genuine.
Nature in Abhijñāna śākuntalam of kālidāsa
The poet describes the nature in his drama Abhijñāna śākuntalam that, Bathing is delightful in the days, the air becomes very fragrant which comes from the forest and that air is scented due to the contact of the pātāla flowers, sleep is effortlessly getting in thick shaded places and which brings charmings at the end of the day.
Pracchāyasulabhanidrā divasāḥ pariṇāmaramaṇiyāḥ//1
The flowers named śirīṣa which are simply kissed by the black bees and these are used by the youths as their ear ornaments with a sympathetic heart.
Eṣadīṣaccumbitāni bhramaraiḥ sukumārkesaraśikhāni/
Avataṁsayanti dayamānāḥ pramadāḥ śiriṣakusumāni//2
The sage kanva says towards the creeper that, she, śakuntalā who has not taken the drinking water first, when you have not received water, although śakuntalā has a great enthusiasm for wearing the ornaments, yet she did not pluck your leaves due to keen affection to you. That is the time of the festival for her when your first blossoming appears.she, śakuntalā, who is now going to her husband’s house. Please give her permission to do that by all (creepers). The description is like this.
Pātuṁ na prathamaṁ vyavasyati jalaṁ yuṣmāsvapiteṣu yā
Nādatte priyamaṇḍanāpi bhavatāṁ snehena yā pallavam/
Ādye vaḥ kusumaprasūtisamaye yasyā bhavatyutsavaḥ
Seyaṁ yāti śakuntalā patigṛhaṁ sarvairanujñāyatām//3
Śakuntalā permitted by the trees for departure to her husband’s house. The trees, who were the companions during the presence with her in the forest. At that time, the sweet sound of the cuckoo has been heard as their word of consent. Here the trees, the sound of the cuckoo are nature related.
Anumatagamanā śakuntalā tarubhiriyaṁ vanavāsabandhubhiḥ/
Parabhṛtavirutaṁ kalaṁ yathā prativacanīkṛtabhirīdṛśam//4
This is the description of śakuntalā when she has started journey to her husband’s house, may the path of śakuntalā will become charming and interval with lakes and green with lotus plants, and the sun rays became very heat and mitigated by the thick shade of the trees, and the dust became soft with the dustmite of lotuses, the breeze became very pleasant and favorable and joyful. Here lake, lotus, the sunrays, trees, the breeze are the description of nature-related. The description of the poet is like this.
Ramyāntaraḥ kamalinīharitaiḥ sarobhiśchāyādrumairniyamitārkamayūkhatāpaḥ/
Bhūyātkuśeśayarajomṛdureṇurasyāḥ śāntānukūlapavanśca śivaśca panthāḥ//5
The female deer have denied eating the darbha grass and the dancing of peacocks has been given up by them and the creepers have fallen their yellow leaves as if they shed tears due to the departure of śakuntalā for her husband’s house. Really, the description of the great poet kālidāsa is magnanimous and heart-touching.
Udgalitadarbhakavalā mṛgyaḥ parityaktanartanā mayurāḥ/
Apasṛtapāṇḍupatrā muṅcatyaśruṇīva latāḥ//6
When the daughter of the sage kanva, śakuntalā has gone to her husband’s house, at that time, the trees have bend down their branches and the clouds which are formulated as new, these clouds have hung in very low. Here new clouds and the description of trees are signing. of nature which described by the nature poet kālidāsa very beautifully.
Bhavanti namrāstaravaḥ phalāgamair/
King Duṣyanta thinks himself that, why he had agitated after hearing such type of song, although he has not separated from a beloved or on the other hand, when a person stays although in amusement condition or happiness, and he became worried about looking at the object, which gives the charms to the mind or hearing the sound, which is enjoyable. He remembers with mind and consciousness of the fact and the past friendships are impressed on the mind permanently, and the description of the poet is like this.
Ramyāṇi vikṣya madhurāśca niśamya śabdān
Paryutsuko bhavati yatsukhito’pi jantuḥ/
Taccetasā smarati nūnamabodhapūrvaṁ
Bhāvaśthirāṇi jananātara sauhṛdāṇi//8
King Duṣyanta says I have to settle a camp near this hermitage, I cannot able to command your voice, especially today. let the bison jumps in the ponds and they have struck in the water with their horns frequently. Let the group of deers have chewed the cud, and take a rest in the shades, let the number of boars have dug the grass named mustā in the ponds, and let our bow has taken rest without working its regular works. Here deers, ponds, bison, boars, these are related to nature.
Gāhāntāṁ mahiṣā nipānasalilaṁ śṛṅgairmuhurtāḍitaṁ
Chāyābadhakadambakaṁ mṛgakula romanthamabhyasyatu/
Viśrabdhaṁ kriyatāṁ varāhatatibhirmustākṣatiḥ palvale
Viśrāmaṁ labhatāmidaṁ ca śithilajyābandhamasmadhanuḥ//9
Nature in Raghuvaṁśam of kālidāsa
The description of nature is also found in Raghuvaṁśam of the poet kālidāsa. In canto two when the king Dilīpa serves Nandinī and wants to go to the forest with her, at that time the trees of both sides on the road think Dilīpa, who has no followers, and he looks like the god of Aruṇa, so, the trees have started to utter the words of victory of the king by dint of the singing of impassioned birds.
Visṛṣṭapārśvānucarasya tasya pārśvadrumā pāśabhṛtā samasya/
Udīrayāmāsurivonmadānāmālokaśabdaṁ vayasāṁ virāvaiḥ//10
When the king Dilīpa followed Nandinī on the way, he looks like the friend of fire (marutsakhā) and who is also worshipped. The young creepers and those are agitated and showered the flowers by the force of the wind as the young women of the city were scattered the traditional lājās (dry paddy) on him.
Marutprayuktāśca marutsakhābhaṁ tamarcyamārādabhivarttamānaṁ/
Avākiranvālalatāḥ prasūnairācāralājairiva paurakanyāḥ//11
King Dilīpa came to hear his own glory which was loudly sung by the goddesses of the forest from a pleasant place under the tree. The singing works of the flute were performed by the bamboos, whose holes were filled with wind and by such type of works of nature fulfilled the holy and worshipping works in the forest completely.
Śuśrāva kuṅjeṣu yaśaḥ svamuccaiḥ
When king Dilīpa performed his Gosevāvrata and dedicated his service towards Nandinī who is the kāmadhenu. In the forest, when Dilīpa followed her at that time nature has given the best service. The wind which became fragrant and also cool by dint of the mountain streams and flowers of shaken trees and who is a purified person by his noble character and he has felt tired due to the excess heat of the sun rays, nature serves the king, who has no umbrella by using the natural way like by the cool wind.
Tamātapaklāntamanātapatram ācārapūtaṁ pavanaḥ siṣeve//13
The king Dilīpa has gone to the forest and enjoyed the natural scenery of that forest when he followed Nandinī, kāmadhenu. At that time, the condition of the forest has been darkened and the wild pigs were coming from the pools and the peacocks were returned to their resting place, trees and there were antelopes, the green forest, wild pigs, seeing the natural scenery by the king, these are mainly related to nature and which have been described by the great poet kālidāsa in his poetry Raghuvaṁsam very beautifully.
Yayou mṛgādhyāsitaśādvalāni śyāmāyamānāni vanāni paśyan//14
Nature in meghadūtam of kālidāsa
In this drama, the yakṣa says to the cloud as a messenger to his wife. This looks in front and from the high level of the hillock, the bow (rainbow) of Indra which is a fragmented condition and looks attractive as mixing of the streaming beam of gems and which can able to attain your dark body as charming grandeur, and looking like viṣṇu, who is in the character of cow herd’s kṛṣṇa by the features of peacock with glittering grandeur. Here the rainbow of Indra, the streaming beam of gems, darken body of the cloud are the description of nature especially and also beautifully.
Ratnacchāyāvyatikara eva prekṣyametatpurastād
valmikāgrāt prabhavati Dhanuḥ khaṇḍamākhaṇḍalasya/
Yena śyāmaṁ vapuratitarāṁ kāntimāpatsyate te
Barheṇeva spḥuritarucinā gopaveṣasya viṣṇoḥ//15
The kadamba flowers have seen as green and brown because of half-grown fibers. Kandalis are eaten on the bank of swampy and the first buds looking on them, the fragrance of the strong odor of the forest place separately, the deer, the bees and the elephants will indicate your path on which path the drop of water showers. The deer, the bees, the elephants, the kadamba flowers are related to the description of nature.
Nipaṁ dṛṣtvā haritakapiśaṁ kesarairardharūḍhairāvirbhūta
Jagadhvā’raṇyeṣvadhikasurabhiṁ gandhamāghrāya corvyāḥ
Sāraṅgāste jalalavamucaḥ sūcayiṣyanti mārgam//16
Yakṣa said to the cloud that when you will be nearer of the Daśārṇa country and then you can see the hedges of that garden and which is white-colored with the flowers named ketaka. The domestic birds have made a nest in the top of the sacred trees of the concerned villages. There are situated the dark jambu forest, where the jambu fruits have to ripen and the swans take their halting at that place for some days. Here white-colored ketaki flowers, birds, jambu forests, these are the description of nature, which are the creative idea of the great poet kālidāsa.
Tvyyāsanne pariṇatapḥalaśyāmajambū vanāntāḥ
Further yakṣa said to the cloud, the mild breeze which is impelled on you and the birds named chātaka has sweetly sung with full of amusement on your left side, confidently, the female cranes have shown in the sky orderly and also they possess the experience of pleasure about conception. They can able to give more charming to the eyes in the sky. Here the birds named chātaka and their sweet singing, orderly going of the cranes, the mild breeze, these are related to the experience of nature of the nature poet kālidāsa.
Mandaṁ mandaṁ nudati pavanaścānukūlo yathā tvāṁ
Vāmaścāyaṁ nadati madhuraṁ cātakaste sagandhaḥ/
Seviṣyante nayanasubhagaṁ khe bhavantaṁ balākāḥ//18
Yakṣa says to the cloud when you reach the mountain, which is the source of that river like Himālaya, filled with white snow and the rocks are fragranced by the deer and her musk, yakṣa says, you can sit on its top and you may be to remove your luck, a comparable beauty and also a miracle which turned the white bull to a god, who possesses three eyes, śiva. Here the river, himālaya, white snow, deer, white bull, these are related to nature.
Āsinānāṁ surabhitaśilaṁ nābhigandhairmṛgāṇāṁ
Tasyā eva prabhavamacalaṁ prāpya gauraṁ tuṣāraiḥ/
Vakṣyasyadhvaśramavinayane tasya śṛṅge niṣaṇṇaḥ
Śobhāṁ subhrāṁtrinayana vṛṣotkhātpaṅkopameyām//19
The fancy exists in your body which is in the creepers named priyaṅgu, the female deer possesses your glance of the eye, the moon is equal to the beauty of your face, your hair which has decorated, these are equal to the feathers of peacocks, and your eyebrows which have playful movements equal to gentle wavelet of rivers. Oh, misfortune, there are no things that can be compared to you. Here creepers, female deer, the moon, feathers of peacocks, rivers, these are related to nature description and which are creative creation of nature poet kālidāsa.
Śyāmāsvaṅgaṁ cakitahariṇīprekṣaṇe dṛṣṭipātaṁ
Vaktracchāyāṁ śaśini śikhināṁ barhabhāreṣu keśān/
Utpaśyāmi pratanuṣu nadīvīciṣu bharuvilāsān
Hantaikasminkvacidapi na te caṇḍi sādṛśyamasti//20
In Uttara Megha, yakṣa said to the cloud, that at the place of Alakā, where the trees bear the flowers forever and the bees who are intoxicated and resound by their soundings, the lotus plants have filed with plenty number of lotuses and that place is surrounded with a line of swans, the domestic peacocks have looked with splendid feathers, and create shrill sound with raised necks, and the knights of the city, Alakā, decorated by the moonlight and the darkness of that city is removed by the light of the moon. Here swans, bees, flowers, lotus plants, peacocks, and the nights, moonlight, these are about the description of nature clearly and the nature poet kāllidāsa has described it here vividly.
Yatronmattabhramaramukharāḥ pādapā nityapuṣpā
Haṁsaśreṇīracitaraśanā nityapadmā nalinyaḥ/
Kekotkaṇṭhā bhavanaśikhino nityabhāsvatkalāpā
Nityajyotsnāḥ pratihatatamovṛttiramyāḥ pradoṣāḥ//21
The bamboos which are filled with wind create a sound of pleasant and the victory of Tripura has sung by the kinnar’s wives, and if your thunder sound makes a resounding in the caves and which is very deep as a tabor, the instrument like the consort of lord śiva can be completed. Here bamboo sound, wind these are the nature-related description.
Śabdāyante madhuramanilaiḥ kīcakāḥ pūryamāṇāḥ
Saṁraktābhistripuravijayo gīyante kinarībhiḥ/
Nirhārdaste muraja eva cetkandareṣu dhvaniḥ syāt
Saṁgītārtho nanu paśupatestatra bhāvī samagraḥ//22
From the above discussion, it is concluded that kālidāsa was a great poet and nature was his soul, he is the poet of nature. In fact, he realizes the nature of every aspect and how man and nature are related to each other. He is a master of human psychology. His writing style is very pure and heart touching of all human minds. He describes the gorgeous scenery of the mountain himālaya and his descriptions of many rivers are most impressive in the works of poetry. The literature of kālidāsa will exist in this world until the existence of the creation.
6.Abhijñāna śākuntalam.Act.IV. sloka.12.
1.Kale. M.R-The Meghadūta of kālidāsa-Motilal Banarsidass Publishers private limited.1974.
2.Kale. M.R-The Abhijñāna śākuntalam of kālidāsa-Motilal Banarsidass Publishers private limited.1969.
3.Sathapathy Dr. Harekrishna-Raghuvaṁśam(canto.II)-Kitab Mahal, Cuttack.1992.
4.K. Krishnamoorthy-Kālidāsa-Sahitya Academi.1994.
5.Kālidāsa saṅkhipta Charitra.http;//sanskrit document.org.
Lecturer in sanskrit
K.c.p.A.N jr. College,Bankoi,khurda,odisha
At.Chandeswarsahi, p.o.Rajranpur,Dist. Nayagarh,Odisha,