Classification of Malayalam Sandhi
|Aishwarya G Nath
Karnataka SamskritUniversity, Bengaluru
|Dr Shivani V
Prof and HOD Vyakarana Department
Karnataka SamskritUniversity, Bengaluru
“Sandhi is joining of two words or prakṛti and pratyaya.” says A R Raja Raja Varma in Keralapāṇiniyam. Sandhi is a frequent phenomenon in Malayalam literature. In this paper we are presenting a study of Malayalam sandhi which will be pre-cursor in building computational tools for Malayalam Language. Here, Malayalam sandhi instances are explained with examples in the backdrop of Pāṇinian rules. We also present here observations made during the study with respect to Sanskrit Sandhi.
Sandhi is the fusion of sounds across word boundaries and the alteration of sounds due to neighboring sounds or due to the grammatical function of adjacent words. It is a process by which two or more words unite to form a single word, by undergoing modification. There are environmental and contextual factors that influence every language as these factors impact the vocal sounds of language. Hence, Sandhi forms a critical element of many language. In speech, Sandhi helps in easier pronunciation.
Pāṇini defines saṃhitā as Extreme closeness of letters with the sūtra
पर :सन्निकर्ष: संहिता.
In Sanskrit, a rule about sandhi or saṃhitā is also put in a verse!
- saṃhitāikapadenityā – when a word is quoted as a single word, it is mandatory to do sandhi or saṃhitā
E.g. kaścitnityā —> kaścit + nityā
- Dhātūpasargayoḥ – when there is a prefix with a verbal root, it is mandatory to do sandhi or saṃhitā
E.g. pratyāgacchāmi —> prati + āgacchāmi
- nityāsamāse – In compound word it is mandatory to do sandhi or saṃhitā.
- vākye tu sā vivakṣāmapekṣate – In a sentence, it is discretionary.
E.g.,śubhamastu, śubhamastu. both are possible.
- R’sdefinition of Sandhi.
According to A.R, Sandhi is joining of two words or prakṛti and pratyaya. In Keralapāṇiniyam, which is a well-known Malayalam grammar book, he has concisely explained sandhi phenomenon and has categorized the same. When two letters (akshara) or varṇa (according to vyakarana shastra) join, some changes may or may not occur. Such changes are called Sandhi.
Classification of sandhi in Malayalam.
Sandhi is classified in three ways according to its nature.
Here sandhi is syntactically classified into three. They are:
Pada is generated by the fusion of prakṛti and pratyaya. When the varṇavikara happens between prakṛti and pratyaya it is called as padamadhyasandhiḥ by A.R.
Eg: marattil —> maraṃ + il
Here maraṃ is `prakṛti’ and `il’ is a pratyaya. Fusion of these two results a single word marattil’.
This Sandhi occurs between two words. Hence it is calledpadāntasandhi.
Eg: maḻuvilla—-> maḻu + illa
Here `maḻu’ and `illa’ are two different words, joining together forms `maḻuvilla.’
Sometimes both padamadhyasandhi and padāntasandhiḥ are found in single word. Such an occurrence is called as ubhayasandhi.
Ex. maṇiyaṟayil —-> maṇiyaṟa + il —>maṇi + aṟa + il
For instance, the word maṇiyaṟayil has padantasandi between the words ‘maṇiand aṟa’ as maṇiyaṟa and padamadhyasandhibetween maṇiyaṟa and il.
Generally, padāntasandhi can be considered as external sandhi, and padamadhyasandhias internal sandhi. Padāntasandhi occurs in between two words and padamadhyasandhioccurs within words.
A.R again classifies sandhi into Four categories according to svaravyañjanabheda. They are:
When saṃhitā takes place between two svaras, is called svarasandhi.
Eg: maḻayalla —>maḻa + alla
When saṃhitā takes place between two vyañjanas, is called vyañjanasandhi.
Eg: nenmaṇi —>nel + maṇi
When saṃhitā takes place between a svara and a vyañjana, it is called svaravyañjanasandhi.
Eg : tāmarakkuḷaṃ—> tāmara + kuḷaṃ
When saṃhitā takes place between vyañjana and svara, it is called svaravyañjanasandhi.
Eg: kaṇṇilla —->kaṇ +illa
This classification is based on the varṇavikārahappens when two words or stems join together.They are:
In this Sandhi a letter will be replaced by another letter.
nenmaṇi —>nel +maṇi
Here ‘l’ gets replaced with ‘n’.
When new letter is added between the Varṇas were saṃhitā takes place, is called āgamasandhi.
Eg : maḻuvilla—> maḻu + illa
In this example, the varṇa ‘v’ is added in between ‘u’ and ‘I’.
Double occurrence or dvitva of a letter of a sanhita is called dvitvasandhi.
Eg:aviṭeppōyi—> aviṭe + poyi
In this example p doubles to pp.
Elision of a varṇa when two words joins together is called lopasandhi.
Eg: kaṇṭilla —>kaṇṭu + illa
Here the varṇa ‘u’ disappears when saṃhitā takes place.
After studying the classification following observation were made .
- There are several similarities between Paninian and Malayalam Sandhi classification. Concept of āgama, ādeśa ,lopa, dvitva which are present in Paninian sandhi rules are also present in Malayalam sandhi.
2.The swara sandhi, vyañjanana sandhi and swara – vyañjana sandhis combinations are present in both languages .
- There is a major influence of Sanskrit in Malayalam language.Hence
Malayalam sandhi is following Paninian rules and Language specific rules.
These observations can be utilised to draw computational rules to create an automatic sandhi splitter and joiner. This type of tools can be used to teach and learn Malayalam language and also as pre-editing tools in the Natural Language Processing (NLP) System.
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